Professor David J. Hand


Professor David J. Hand OBE  FBA    (HonFIA, FIMA, MA, MSc, PhD, C.Stat)

Senior Research Investigator and Emeritus Professor of Mathematics

Imperial College, London.

 

Chief Scientific Advisor

Winton Capital Management

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Short bio:

Professor David Hand is Senior Research Investigator and Emeritus Professor of Mathematics at Imperial College, London, where he formerly held the Chair in Statistics. He is also Chief Scientific Advisor to Winton Capital Management, a Fellow of the British Academy, and an Honorary Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries. He has served (twice) as President of the Royal Statistical Society. He was appointed a non-executive director of the UK Statistics Authority on 1 April 2013 for a period of three years, and is Chair of the Board of the UK Administrative Data Research Network. In 2002 he was awarded the Guy Medal of the Royal Statistical Society, and in 2012 he and his research group won the Credit Collections and Risk Award for Contributions to the Credit Industry. He has published 300 scientific papers and 26 books, including Principles of Data Mining, Information Generation, and Measurement Theory and Practice. His latest book, The Improbability Principle, was published in February 2014. In 2013 he was made OBE for services to research and innovation.

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Public sector roles

 

President: Royal Statistical Society, 2008-2009, 2010

 

National Research Councils and other funding bodies:

       Member of various ESRC Grant Committees

       Member of various EPSRC Committees, including

                   EPSRC National Mathematics College: 2000-

                   EPSRC Technical Opportunities Panel, 2008-11

                   EPSRC Strategic Advisory Network, 2011-13

 

Office for National Statistics Methodology Advisory Committee (2001-9)

UK Statistics Authority Board, Non-Executive Director (2013-)

UK Administrative Data Research Network Chairman of Governing Board (2013-)

UEA Climatic Research Unit Scientific Assessment Panel (2010)

UK Strategic Forum for the Social Sciences (2010-)

ONS Measuring National Wellbeing Technical Advisory Group (2011-)

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H Measure

To download information relating to the H-measure, including instructions on accessing R code, go to

       http://www.hmeasure.net

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Honours:

 

Books:

  • Hand D.J. (2014) The Improbability Principle: why coincidences, miracles, and rare events happen every day. FSG/Scientific American.
  • Krzanowski W.J. and Hand D.J. (2009) ROC curves for continuous data. CRC/Chapman and Hall.
  • Hand D.J. (2008) Statistics: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press.
  • Hand D.J. (2007) Information Generation: How data rule our world. OneWorld Publications.
  • Hand D.J. and Herzberg A.M. (eds) (2005) Selected statistical papers of Sir David Cox. CUP.
  • Hand D.J. (2004) Measurement theory and practice: the world through quantification,  Edward Arnold.
  • Adams N.M., Crowder, M..J., Hand D.J., and Stephens D.A. (eds.) (2004) Methods and models in statistics: in honour of Professor John Nelder, FRS. World Scientific.
  • Hand D.J., Adams N.M., and Bolton R.J. (eds.) (2002) Pattern detection and discovery. Springer.
  • Hand D.J., Mannila H., and Smyth P. (2001) Principles of data mining, MIT Press. [Chinese translation, 2003; Polish translation, 2005]
  • Hoffmann F., Hand D.J., Adams N., Fisher D., and Guimaraes G. (eds) (2001) Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis. Springer.
  • Hand D.J., Kok J.N., and Berthold M.R. (eds.) (1999) Advances in intelligent data analysis. Springer-Verlag.
  • Berthold M. and Hand D.J. (eds) (1999) Intelligent data analysis. Springer-Verlag.
  • Hand D.J. and Jacka S. (eds.) (1998) Statistics in finance, Edward Arnold.
  • Hand D.J. (1997) Construction and assessment of classification rules, Wiley.
  • Hand D.J. and Crowder M.J. (1996) Practical longitudinal data analysis, Chapman & Hall.
  • Gower J.C. and Hand D.J. (1996) Biplots, Chapman & Hall.
  • Daly F., Hand D.J., Jones M.C., Lunn A.D., and McConway K. (1995) Elements of statistics, Addison-Wesley.
  • Hand D.J., Daly F., Lunn A.D., McConway K. and Ostrowski E. (eds.) (1994) A handbook of small data sets, Chapman & Hall.
  • Hand D.J. (ed.) (1994) AI and computer power: the impact on statistics, Chapman & Hall.
  • Hand D.J. (ed ) (1993) Artificial intelligence frontiers in statistics, Chapman & Hall,
  • Crowder M.J. and Hand D.J. (1990) Analysis of repeated measures, Chapman & Hall.
  • Hand D.J. and Everitt B.S. (eds.) (1987) The statistical consultant in action, Cambridge University Press.
  • Hand D.J. and Taylor C.C. (1987 Multivariate analysis of variance and repeated measures: a practical guide for behavioural scientists, Chapman & Hall.
  • Hand D.J. (1985) Artificial intelligence and psychiatry, Cambridge University Press [Fench translation, 1991]
  • Hand D.J. (1982) Kernel discriminant analysis, Research Studies Press/Wiley.
  • Everitt B.S. and Hand D.J. (1981) Finite mixture distributions, Chapman & Hall.
  • Hand D.J. (1981) Discrimination and classification, Wiley.

Papers: (Please email me if you would like pdf files)

R172:   Hand D.J. (2014) Wonderful examples, but let’s not close our eyes. Statistical Science, 29, 98-100.

P19:     Hand D.J. (2014) David J. Hand’s lottery tips. New York Times, 23 Feb 2014.

P18:     Hand D.J. (2014) Lottery tickets and long shots. Los Angeles Times, 16 March 2014.

P17:     Hand D.J. (2014) Five laws (and our brains) make one in a billion events happen every day. City AM. 3 March 2014. http://www.cityam.com/article/1393820179/five-laws-and-our-brains-make-one-billion-events-happen-every-day

I100:    Hand D.J. (2014) Obituary for Dennis Lindley. The Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/16/dennis-lindley

I99:      Hand D.J. Problems with science? 185-193. (2014) Psychology and statistics: ready for the future? Liber Amicorum for Willem J. Heiser, ed M.de Rooij and C.M.van Putten, Leiden University.

R171:   Hand D.J. and Anagnostopoulos C. (2014) A better beta for the H-measure of classification performance. Pattern Recognition Letters, 40, 41-46.

I98:     Hand D.J. (2013) Data not dogma: big data, open data, and the opportunities ahead. In Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis, XII, 12th International Symposium, LNCS 8207, Springer, Berlin, 1-12.

I97:     Hand D.J. What evidence? Herstmonceux conference, 17-21 April 2013

I96:     Hand D.J. (2013) From evidence to understanding: a precarious path. European Review, 21, Supplement No. 1, S32-S39.

C65:    Hand D.J. (1993) In Statistical Meta Information Systems,Proceedings of the Conference, Luxembourg 2-4 February, p417-9, Eurostat.

I95:     Hand D.J. (2013) The dilemmas of open data. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy XVII: Democracy, danger, and dilemmas. April 18-21, 2012, ed. A.M.Herzberg, Queen's University, Canada. 67-74.

R170:  Hand D.J. and Adams N.M. (2013) Selection bias in credit scorecard evaluation. Journal of the Operational Research Society, doi:10.1057/jors.2013.55

R169:  Pavlidis N.G., Tasoulis D.K., Adams N.M., and Hand D.J. (2012) Adaptive consumer credit classification. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 63, 1645-1654.

I94:     Hand D.J. (2012) Credit scoring, insurance and discrimination. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy XVI: Risks, Rights, and Regulations. April 17-20, 2011, ed. A.M.Herzberg, Queen's University, Canada. 85-90.

R168:  Hand D.J. and Anagnostopoulos C. (2013) When is the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve an appropriate measure of classifier performance? Pattern Recognition Letters, 34, 492-496.

R167:  Henrion M., Hand D.J., Gandy A., and Mortlock D.J. (2012) CASOS: A subspace method for anomaly detection in high dimensional astronomical databases. Statistical Analysis and Data Mining.

R166:  Hand D.J. (2012) Assessing the performance of classification methods. International Statistical Review.

I93:     Hand D.J. (2012) Open data: problems and promise. ESRC Methods News, p3, August, 2012.  http://www.ncrm.ac.uk/news/methodsnews.php  And reprinted in the newsletter of the Social Research Association  http://www.the-sra.org.uk/

I92:     Hand D.J. (2012) Open data creates pitfalls as well as opportunities. Research Fortnight News, 25th July.

I91:     Hand D.J. (2012) Open data is a force for good, but not without risks. The Guardian, 10th July.  http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2012/jul/10/open-data-force-for-good-risks?INTCMP=SRCH

I90:     Hand D.J. (2012) Voyages of discovery. In Journeys to Data Mining, ed. M.M.Gaber, Springer, New York.

I89:     Hand D.J. (2012) Mathematics and statistics in finance. A Global Village, 7, 11-15.

I88:     Hand D.J. (2012) Strength through synergy: presentation to the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries Open Forum, 27 Sept 2010. British Actuarial Journal,

R165:  Anagnostopoulos C., Tasoulis D., Adams N.M., Pavlidis N.G., and Hand D.J. (2012) Online linear and quadratic discriminant analysis with adaptive forgetting for streaming classification. Statistical Analysis and Data Mining, 5, 139-166.

R164:  Ross G.J., Tasoulis D.K., Adams N.M., and Hand D.J. (2011) Exponentially weighted moving average charts for detecting concept drift. Pattern Recognition Letters, 33, 191-198.

I87:     Hand D.J. (2011) Money, drugs, temperature and politicians: the interplay of security and ethics. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy XV: Ethics, Security, and Society. April 21-24, 2010, ed. A.M.Herzberg, Queen's University, Canada. 9-16.

R163:  Hand D.J. (2011) Discussion of ‘Bayesian models and methods in public policy and government settings’ by S.E.Fienberg. Statistical Science, 26, 227-230.

R162:  Bentham J. and Hand D.J. Data mining from a patient safety database: the lessons learned. To appear in Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery.

R161:  Hand D.J. and Crowder M.J. Overcoming selectivity bias in evaluating new fraud detection systems for revolving credit operations.  Accepted for publication in the International Journal of Forecasting, doi:10.1016/j.ijforecast.2010.10.005

C64:    Hand D.J. (2010) Statistics in government, with crime statistics as a case study. Foundation for Science and Technology, http://www.foundation.org.uk/events/audios/audiopdf.htm?e=430&s=1169

R160:  Henrion M., Mortlock D.J., Hand D.J., and Gandy A. (2010) A Bayesian approach to star-galaxy classification. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society,

R159:  Brentnall A.R., Crowder M.J., and Hand D.J. (2010) Approximate repeated-measure shrinkage. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 55, 1150-1159.

R158:  Pavlidis N., Tasoulis D.K., Adams N.M., and Hand D.J. λ-perceptron: an adaptive classifier for data streams. Accepted for publication in Pattern Recognition.

I86:     Hand D.J. (2010) The laws of coincidence,  Lechevallier, Y. And Saporta. (eds), COMPSTAT2010,  Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computational Statistics,  Springer, 167-176. 

C63:    Adams, N.M., Tasoulis, D.K., Anagnostopoulos, C. and Hand, D.J. (2010) Temporally-adaptive linear classification for handling population drift in credit scoring,    Lechevallier, Y. And Saporta. (eds), COMPSTAT2010,  Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computational Statistics,  Springer, 167-176. 

I85:     Hand D.J. (2010) Statistics: an overview. To appear in the International Encyclopedia of Statistical Science, ed. Miodrag Lovric

L20:    Hand D.J. (2010) Monitoring large data sets to detect fraud: discussion of the papers by Becker et al and Sudjianto et al. To appear in Technometrics

R157:  Yu K, Ally A.K., Yang S., and Hand D.J. Kernel quantile-based estimation of expected shortfall. To appear in Journal of Risk.

R156:  Heard N.A., Weston D.J., Platanioti K., and Hand D.J. Bayesian anomaly detection methods for social networks. To appear in Annals of Applied Statistics.

R155:  Hand D.J. Evaluating diagnostic tests: the area under the ROC curve and the balance of errors. To appear in Statistics in Medicine.

R154:  Anagnostopoulos C., Adams N.M., Hand D.J. (2010) Streaming covariance selection with applications to adaptive querying in sensor networks. The Computer Journal, doi: 10.1093/comjnl/bxp123

R153:  Pavlidis N.G., Adams N.M., Nicholson D., and Hand D.J. Prospects for bandit solutions in sensor management. To appear in The Computer Journal.

R152:  Brentnall A.R., Crowder M.J., and Hand D.J. (2010) Likelihood-ratio changepoint features for consumer-behaviour models. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 61, 462-472.

R151:  Anagnostopoulos C., Tasoulis, D.K., Adams N.M, and Hand D.J. Temporally adaptive estimation of logistic classifiers on data streams. To appear in Advances in Data Analysis and Classification.

R150:  Hand D.J. and Zhou F. (2009) Evaluating models for classifying customers in retail banking collections. Journal of the Operational Society, , 1-8.

R149:  Krzanowski W.J. and Hand D.J. Testing the difference between two Kolmogorov-Smirnov values in the context of Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. To appear in Journal of Applied Statistics.

R148:  Brentnall A., Crowder M.J., and Hand D.J. Predictive-sequential forecasting system development for cash machine stocking.  Accepted for publication in the International Journal of Forecasting.

I84:      Hand D.J. (2009) Let the facts speak for themselves. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy XIII: Government, Science, and Politics. April 18-21, 2007, ed. A.M.Herzberg, Queen's University, Canada. 117-123.

I83:      Hand D.J. (2007) The information economy: personal privacy and public protection. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy XI: Government, Science, and Politics. April 18-21, 2007, ed. A.M.Herzberg, Queen's University, Canada. 37-42.

C62:    Bentham J. and Hand D.J. (2009) Detecting new kinds of patient safety incidents. Discovery Science, 2009. Springer Lecture Notes on Artificial Intelligence, 5808, ed. J. Gama et al, 51-65.

R147:  Hand D.J. (2009) Mining the past to determine the future: rejoinder. International Journal of Forecasting, 25, 461-462.

R146:  Tasoulis D., Adams N.M., and Hand D.J. (2009) Selective fusion of out-of-sequence measurements. To appear in Information Fusion.  doi:10.1016/j.inffus.2009.06.002

C61:    Hand D.J. and Blunt G. Estimating the iceberg: how much fraud is there in the UK? Journal of Financial Transformation, 25, part 1, p19-29. http://www.capco.com/?q=content/journal-detail&sid=1094

P16:    Hand D.J. (2008) Mathematics or mismanagement: the crash of 2008. Mathematics Today, June, 106-107.  Reproduced in Newsletter of the London Mathematical Society, no.382, June, p15.

I82:     Hand D.J. (2009) Naive Bayes. In The Top Ten Algorithms in Data Mining, ed. X.Wu and V.Kumar, Chapman and Hall, Boca Raton. p163-177.

R145:  Hand D.J. (2009) Measuring classifier performance: a coherent alternative to the area under the ROC curve. Accepted by Machine Learning.

I81:     Hand D.J. (2009) Common sources of unreliability in scientific evidence. In The Admissibility of Expert Witness Evidence in Criminal Proceedings in England and Wales, Consultation Paper no. 190, The Law Commission. 90-92.

P15:    Hand D.J. (2009) How we are fighting the battle against fraud. Credit Collections and Risk, March, 47-48.

R144:  Jamain A. and Hand D.J. (2009) Where are the large and difficult data sets? Accepted for publication in Advances in Data Analysis and Classification, 10.1007/s11634-009-0037-8.

R143:  Krzanowski W.J. and Hand D.J. A simple method for screening variables before clustering microarray data. To appear in Computational Statistics and Data Analysis.  CSDA-D-08-00544R1  (e236)

R142:  Hand D.J. (2009) Modern statistics: the myth and the magic (RSS Presidential Address). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 172, 287-306.

C60:    Hand D.J. and Yu K. Justifying adverse actions with new scorecard technologies.  Accepted by Journal of  Financial Transformation.

I80:     Hand D.J. and Weston D.J. (2008) Statistical techniques for fraud detection, prevention, and assessment. In Mining Massive Data Sets for Security, ed. Fogelman-Soulié, Perrotta D., Pisorski J., and Steinberger R..  IOS Press, Amsterdam. 257-270.

R141:  Hand D.J. (2008) Breast cancer diagnosis from proteomic mass spectrometry data: a comparative evaluation. To appear in Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology. 7, DOI: 10.2202/1544-6115.1435

R140:  Hand D.J. (2008) Mining the past to determine the future: problems and possibilities. International Journal of Forecasting, 10.1016/j.ijforecast.2008.09.004

R139:  Pei T, Jasra A., and Hand D.J., DECODE: a new method for discovering clusters of different densities in spatial data.  To appear in Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery.

P14:    Hand D.J. (2008) The perils of data mining for credit applications. Credit Collections and Risk, October, p48-49.

R138:  Brentnall A., Crowder, M.J., and Hand D.J. (2008) Predicting the amount individuals withdraw at cash machines. Accepted for publication in Statistical Modelling.

C57:    Tasoulis, D.K, Adams, N.M. and Hand D.J., (2008) “Exploiting and handling delayed measurements in sensor systems”,  SENSORCOMM ’08, Second International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, 2008, 166-171.

C59:    Adams, N.M., Hand, D.J., Montana, G. and Weston, D. (2006). Fraud Detection in consumer credit. Expert Update,  9(1), 21-27.

C58:    Brentnall, A. R., M. J. Crowder, and D. J. Hand (2008). Empirical random-effects models to predict the amount individuals withdraw at cash machines. In P. H. Eilers (Ed.), Proceedings of the 23rd International Workshop on Statistical Modelling, pp. 131-136.

P13:     Hand D.J. (2008) A time to experiment. Credit Collections and Risk, May, p18.

R137:  Hand D.J., Brentnall A., and Crowder M.J. (2008) Beyond empirical scorecards. Journal of Financial Transformation, 23, 121-128.

R136:  Whitrow C., Hand D.J., Juszczak P., Weston D., and Adams N.M. (2008) Transaction aggregation as a strategy for credit card fraud detection. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery

R135:  Juszczak P., Adams N.M., Hand D.J., Whitrow C., and Weston D.J. (2008) Off-the-peg or bespoke classifiers for fraud detection? Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 52, 4521-4532.

R134:  Weston D.J., Hand D.J., Adams N.M., Juszczak P., and Whitrow C. (2008) Plastic card fraud detection using peer group analysis. Advances in Data Analysis and Classification, 2(1), 45-62.

R133:  Jamain A. and Hand D.J. (2008) Mining supervised classification performance studies: a meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Classification, 25, 87-112.

R132:  Brentnall A.R., Crowder M.J., and Hand D.J. (2008) A statistical model for the temporal pattern of individual ATM withdrawals. Applied Statistics, 57, 43-59.

C56:    Whitrow C., Hand D.J., Adams N.M., Weston D., and Juszczak P. (2008) Combining fraud detection methods. International Crime Science Conference, British Library.

C55:    Pavlidis, N.G., Tasoulis, D.K., Adams, N.M. and Hand, D.J. (2008) Dynamic multi-armed bandit with covariates. ECAI 2008, 18th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence,  M. Ghallab, C.D. Spyropoulos, N. Fakotakis and N. Avouris (Eds), 777-778.

C54:    Tasoulis D., Adams N.M., Weston D.J., and Hand D.J. (2008) Mining information from plastic card transaction streams.  Compstat 2008.

C53:    Anagnostopoulos, C., Tasoulis, D.K., Adams, N.M. and Hand, D.J. (2008) “Online optimization for variable selection in data streams”. ECAI 2008, 18th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence,  M. Ghallab, C.D. Spyropoulos, N. Fakotakis and N. Avouris (Eds), 132-136.

C52:    Anagnostopoulos, C., Adams, N.M. and Hand, D.J. (2008) Deciding what to observe next: adaptive variable selection for regression in multivariate data streams. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC), 961-965.

C51:    Pavlidis N., Tasoulis D.K., Hand D.J., (2008)  Simulation studies of Multi-Armed Bandits with Covariates.  In 10th International Conference on Computer Modelling and Simulation, Cambridge, 493-498.

C50:    Tasoulis, D.K, Adams, N.M. and Hand D.J. (2008) Simulation and Analysis of Delay Handling Mechanisms in Sensor Networks” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Modelling and Simulation, 661-666.

L20:    Hughes, S, Keene, O, Howitt, N, Roes, K, Ashby, D, Beltangady, M, Bird, SM, Burton, C, Buyse, M, Day, S, van Ewijk, P, Fletcher, C, Grieve, AP, Guinot, C, Hand, DJ, Hemmings, R, Holt, D, Hothorn, L, Jagers, P, Keiding, N, Korhonen, P, Lesaffre, E, Lewis, JA, Molenberghs, G, Neumann, N, Olsen, KJ, van Osta, G, Pocock, S, Rockhold, F, Rossi, A, Senn, S, Stijnen, T, Vaeth, M, Wiklund, SJ, Wolfram, J, (2008) European regulatory agencies should employ full time statisticians, British Medical Journal, 336, 250 – 250.

L19:    Hand D.J. (2008) Comment on Briggs and Zaretski: The Skill Plot: A Graphical Technique for Evaluating Continuous Diagnostic Tests, Biometrics, 64, 259-259.

P12:     Hand D.J. (2008) Personal privacy, data discs, and realistic risk. Significance, March, p11-14.

R131:  Krzanowski W.J. and Hand D.J. (2007) A recursive partitioning tool for maximising prediction accuracy. Advances in Data Analysis and Classification, 1, 241-254.

R130:  Twala B.E.T.H., Jones M.C., and Hand D.J. (2008) Good methods for coping with missing data in decision trees. Pattern Recognition Letters, 29, 950-956.

R129:  Wu X, Kumar V., Quinlan J.R., Ghosh J., Yang Q., Motoda H., McLachlan G.J., Ng A., Liu B., Yu P.S., Zhou Z-H., Steinbach M., Hand D.J., and Steinberg D. Top 10 algorithms in data mining. (2008) Knowledge and Information Systems, 14, 1-37.

R128:  Wu I-D. and Hand D.J. (2007) Handling selection bias when choosing actions in retail credit applications. European Journal of Operational Research, 183, 1560-1568.

I79:      Hand D.J. (2007) Principles of data mining. Drug Safety, 30, 621-622.

I78:      Hand D.J. (2007) Measurement in public policy: hitting a moving target. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy IX: Government, Science, and Politics. April 18-21, 2007, ed. A.M.Herzberg, Queen's University, Canada.

I77:      Hand D.J. (2007) Mining personal banking data to detect fraud. In Selected Contributions in Data Analysis and Classification. ed. P.Brito, P.Bertrand, G.Cucumel, and F de Carvalho. Berlin: Springer, 377-386.

I76:      Hand D.J. (2007) Measuring what matters. Festschrift in honour of Hans Lenz, publ. Dr Kovac., 55-61.

R127:  Hand D.J., Whitrow C., Adams N.M., Juszczak P., and Weston D. (2008) Performance criteria for plastic card fraud detection tools. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 59, 956-962.

R126:  Zhang Z.C. and Hand D.J. (2006) Detecting groups of anomalously similar objects in large data sets. Intelligent Data Analysis, 10, 473-483.

R125:  Hand D.J., Krzanowski W.J., and Crowder M.J. (2007) Optimal predictive partitioning. Statistics and Computing, 17, 11-23.

R124:  Crowder M.J., Hand D.J., and Krzanowski W.J. (2007) On optimal intervention for customer lifetime value. European Journal of Operational Research, 183, 1550-1559.

C49:    Tasoulis D.K., Adams N.M., and Hand D.J. (2007) Should delayed measurements always be incorporated in filtering? 15th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing, 264-267.

C48:    Tasoulis D.K., Adams N.M., and Hand D.J. (2007) Selective fusion of delayed measurements in filtering. In IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing, 336-341.

P11:     Hand D.J. (2007) Deception and dishonesty with data: fraud in science. Significance, v4, no.1, p22-25.

R123:  King M.D., Crowder M.J., Hand D.J., Harris N.G., Williams S.R., Obrenovitch T.P., and Gadian D.G. (2005) Is anoxic depolarisation associated with an ADC threshold?  A Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis.  NMR in Biomedicine, 18, 587-594.

R122:  Hand D.J. (2006) Classifier technology and the illusion of progress (with discussion). Statistical Science, 21, 1-34.

I75:      Hand D.J. (2006) Universities: neither manufacturing nor service, but co-operative industry. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy X, Education, Economics, and Politics. ed. A.M.Herzberg, Queen’s University, Canada, 109-114.

I74:      Hand D.J. (2006) Size matters: measurement and science.  Proceedings of Polish Classification Society, Conference, Wisła, Poland.

I73:      Hand D.J. (2006) Protection or privacy: data mining and personal data.  In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 10th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2006, Singapore, April 9-12, 2006. Eds:  Wee Keong Ng, Masaru Kitsuregawa, Jianzhong Li, Kuiyu Chang. Berlin: Springer. p1-10.

C46:    Adams N.M., Hand D.J., Montana G., Weston D.J., and Whitrow C.W. (2006) Fraud detection in consumer credit. Expert Update, 9(1), 21-27.

C47:    Tasoulis D.K., Adams N.M., and Hand D.J. (2006) Unsupervised clustering in streaming data. IEEE International Conference on Data Mining. 638-642.

R121:  Heard N., Holmes C.C., Stephens D.A., Hand D.J., and Dimopoulos G. (2005) A Bayesian co-clustering of Anopheles gene expression time series responses to multiple immune challenges. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102, 16939-16944.

R120:  De Veaux R.D. and Hand D.J. (2005) How to lie with bad data. Statistical Science, 20, 231-238.

R119:  Crowder M.J. and Hand D.J. On loss distributions from installment-prepaid loans. Lifetime Data Analysis, 11, 545-564.

R118:  Hand D.J. and Heard N.A. (2005) Finding groups in gene expression data. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2005, 215-225.

R117:  Thomas L.C., Oliver R.W., and Hand D.J. (2005) A survey of the issues in consumer credit modelling research. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 56, 1006-1015.

P9:       Hand D.J. (2005) Data analysis in personal financial services: a rich opportunity. Significance, 2, 110-113.

C45:    Hand D.J. and Zhang Z. (2005) Spotting the difference: detecting local structures in large data sets. Expert Update, 8, 11-18.

P8:       Hand D.J. (2005) Size matters. Significance, 2, 81-83.

C44:    Hand D.J., Adams N.M., and Heard N.A. (2004) Pattern discovery tools for detecting cheating in student coursework.  In Local Pattern Detection: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, April 12-16, 2004, eds K.Morik, J-F Boulicaut, and A. Siebes. 39-52. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

C43:    Zhang Z. and Hand D.J. (2005) Detecting groups of anomalously similar objects in large data sets. In Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis VI: 6th International Symposium on Intelligent Data Analysis, IDA 2005, Madrid, Spain. September 8-10, 2005. Ed. A. Fazel Famili, Joost N. Kok, José M. Peña, et al.  p509-519.

I72:      Hand D.J. (2004) Grade inflation.  In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy IX: Government, Science, and Politics. April 21-24, 2004, ed. A.M.Herzberg and R.W.Oldford, Queen's University, Canada, 115-121.

I71 :     Hand D.J. (2005) Data mining. In Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioural Science, Vol 1, ed. B.S.Everitt and D.C.Howell, Wiley, 461-465.

I70:      Hand D.J. (2005) Modern data analysis tools in personal financial services: a quantitative revolution? In Data Mining et Apprentissage Statistique Applications en Assurance, Niort, 7-14.

I69:      Hand D.J. (2005) Pattern Recognition. In  Handbook of Statistics, Vol 24, ed. C.R.Rao and Ed Wegman. Elsevier, 213-228.

R116:  Hand D.J. and Crowder M.J. (2005) Measuring customer quality in retail banking. Statistical Modelling, 5, 145-158.

R115:  Hand D.J., Sohn S.Y., and Kim Y. (2005) Optimal bipartite scorecards. Expert Systems with Applications, 29, 684-690.

R114:  Jamain A. and Hand D.J. (2005) The naive Bayes mystery. Pattern Recognition Letters, 26, 1752-1760.

R110:  Hand D.J. and Krzanowski W.J. (2005) A note on optimising k-means clustering results with standard software packages. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 49, 969-973.

R109:  Hand D.J. (2005) Supervised classification and tunnel vision. Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry. 21, 97-109.

R113:  Hand D.J. and Bolton R.J. (2004) Pattern discovery and detection: a unified statistical methodology. Journal of Applied Statistics, 31, 885-924.

I68:      Hand D.J. (2004) Pattern discovery: preface. Special issue of Journal of Applied Statistics, 31, 883-884.

R111:  McDonald, R.A., Eckley, I. A. and Hand, D.J. (2004) A Multi-Class Extension to the Brownboost Algorithm. International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, 18, 905-931.

R108:  Bolton R.J., Hand D.J. and Crowder M.J. (2004) Significance tests for unsupervised pattern discovery in large continuous multivariate data sets. Computational  Statistics and Data Analysis, 46, 57-79.

R105:  Benton T., Hand D.J., and Crowder M.J. (2004) Two zeds are better than one. Journal of Applied Statistics, 31, 239-247.

L18:    Hand D.J. (2004) Proposal of vote of thanks for ‘Clustering objects on subsets of attributes’ by J.H.Friedman and J.J.Meulman, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 66, 839-840.

I67:      Hand D.J. (2004) Strength in diversity: the advance of data analysis. In Machine Learning, CML, 2004, Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Machine Learning, Pisa, September, 18-26. eds Boulicaut J-F, Esposito F., Giannotti F, and Pedreshchi D. Springer.  And jointly printed in Knowledge Discovery in Databases: PKDD 2004: Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases, Pisa, September, 18-26. eds Boulicaut J-F, Esposito F., Giannotti F, and Pedreschi D. Springer.

I66:      Hand D.J. (2004) Academic obsessions and classification realities: ignoring practicalities in supervised classification.  In Classification, Clustering and Data Mining Applications. ed. D.Banks, L.House, F.R.McMorris, P.Arabie, and W.Gaul. Springer.209-232.

I63:      Hand D.J. (2004) Credit scoring. Encyclopedia of Actuarial Science. ed. J.Teugels and B.Sundt. Chichester: Wiley. Vol.1, 410-41.

R107:  King M, Crowder MJ, and Hand DJ, Harris NG, Williams SR, Obrenovitch TP, Gadian DG (2003) The temporal relationship between the ADC and DC potential responses to transient focal ischemia in the rat: a Markov chain monte carlo simulation analysis.  Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 23, 677-688

R106:  Hand D.J. and Vinciotti V. (2003) Local versus global models for classification problems: fitting models where it matters. The American Statistician. 57, 124-131.

R104:  Bolton R.J., Hand D.J., and Webb A.R. (2003) Projection techniques for nonlinear principal components analysis. Statistics and Computing, 13, 267-276.

R103:  Yearling D. and Hand D.J. (2003) A Bayesian network datamining approach for modelling the physical condition of the copper access network within Broadband Britain. BT Technical Journal, 21, 90-100.

R102:  Till R.J. and Hand D.J. (2003) Behavioural models of credit card usage. Journal of Applied Statistics, 30, 1201-1220.

I65:      Hand D.J. (2003) Crime, statistics, and behaviour.  In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy VIII: Science, Ethics, and the Law. April 23-26, 2003, ed. A.M.Herzberg and R.W.Oldford, Queen's University, Canada, 181-187.

I64:      Hand D.J. (2003) Choosing the right ‘optimal’ model in supervised classification. In Literacia e Estaíistica, Actas do X Congresso Anual da Socieda Portugesa de Estatística, Porto, 25-28 September, 2002, 31-41.

C42:    King M., Crowder M.J., Hand D.J., Harris N.G., Williams S.R, Obrenovitch T.P, Gadian D.G.. (2003) Is there an ADC threshold for depolarisation? An MCMC analysis. Proc. Of the 11th Annual Meeting of the Int. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med., Toronto. Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Berkeley, CA, p1944

I62:      Hand D.J. (2003) Pattern discovery in data mining. In Analisi statistica multivariata per le sceinze economico-sociali, le science naturali e la tecnologia. Società Italialia di Statistica, Salita de' Creszenzi 26, 00186 Roma.15-26.

C41:    King MD, Crowder MK, Hand DJ, Harris NG, Williams SR, Obrenovitch TP, Gadian DG (2002) A Markov chian Monte Carlo simulations analysis of the temporal apparent diffusion coefficient and DC potential responses to focal ischaemia. Proc of the 10th Annual Meeting of the Int Soc Magn Reson Med , Honolulu. Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Berkely CA, p1175.

C40:    McDonald R.A., Eckley I.A. and Hand D.J. (2004) A classifier combination tree algorithm. In Structural, Syntactic, and Statistical Pattern Recognition, ed. A.Fred, T.Caelli, R.P.W. Duin, A.Campilho, and D de Ridder, Springer, 609-617.

C39:    McDonald R., Hand D.J., and Eckley I. (2003) An empirical comparison of three boosting algorithms on real data sets with artificial class noise, in Proceedings of MCS2003 (LNCS 2709), ed. T. Windeatt and F. Roli, p 35-44, 2003,  Berlin Springer-Verlag.

R112:  Hand D.J. (2002) Good practice in retail credit scorecard assessment.  Journal of the Operational Research Society, 56, 1109-1117.

I61:      Hand D.J. (2002) Individual freedom and the choice of umbrella. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy VII: Environment, Health, and Globalization. April 17-20, 2002, ed. A.M.Herzberg and R.W.Oldford, Queen's University, Canada, 213-218.

I60:      Hand D.J. (2002) Selling mackerel by the pound. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy VII: Environment, Health, and Globalization. April 17-20, 2002, ed. A.M.Herzberg and R.W.Oldford, Queen's University, Canada, 67-72.

I59:      Vinciotti V. and Hand D.J. (2002) Scorecard construction with unbalanced class sizes. The Journal of Iranian Statistical Society, 2, 189-205.

R101:  Benton T.C. and Hand D.J. (2002) Segmentation into predictable classes. IMA Journal of Management Mathematics, 13, 245-259.

R100:  Hand D.J. and Kelly M.G. (2002) Superscorecards. IMA Journal of Management Mathematics. 13, 273-281.

R99:    Hand D.J. and Vinciotti V. (2002) Choosing k for two-class nearest neighbour classifiers with unbalanced classes. Pattern Recognition Letters, 24, 1555-1562.

R98:    Bolton R.J. and Hand D.J. (2002) Statistical fraud detection: a review. Statistical Science, 17, 235-255.

R97:    Li H.G. and Hand D.J. (2002) Direct versus indirect credit scoring classifications. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 53, 1-8.

R92:    Fayers P.M. and Hand D.J. (2002) Causal variables, indicator variables, and measurement scales, with discussion. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 165, 233-261.

I58:      Hand D.J. (2002) Discussion and conclusions. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy VI: Science and Responsibility. April 18-21, 2001, ed. A.M.Herzberg and R.W.Oldford, Queen's University, Canada, 267-271.

I57:      Hand D.J. (2002) The framing of decisions as distinct from the making of decisions. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy: VI: Science and Responsibility. April 18-21, 2001, ed. A.M.Herzberg and R.W.Oldford, Queen's University, Canada, 157-161.

I56:      Hand D.J. (2002) A discussion of cultures: two or three. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy VI: Science and Responsibility. April 18-21, 2001, ed. A.M.Herzberg and R.W.Oldford, Queen's University, Canada, 81-83.

I44:      Hand D.J. (2002) Statistics. Handbook of Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, ed. W. Klösgen and J. Zytkow.Oxford: Oxford University Press. 637-643.

C38:    Bolton R.J., Hand D.J., and Adams N.N. (2002) Determining hit rate in pattern search. In Pattern Detection and Discovery, ed. D.J.Hand, N.M.Adams, and R.J.Bolton. Springer. 36-48.

C37:    Hand D.J. (2002) Pattern detection and discovery. In Pattern Detection and Discovery, ed. D.J.Hand, N.M.Adams, and R.J.Bolton. Springer. 1-12.

R96:    Denison D.G.T, Adams N.M., Holmes C. and Hand D.J. (2001) Bayesian Partition Modelling. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 38, 475-485.

R95:    Hand D.J. and Kelly M.G. (2001) Lookahead scorecards for new fixed term credit products. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 52, 989-996.

R94:    Hand D.J. and Blunt G. (2001) Prospecting for gems in credit card data. IMA Journal of Management Mathematics, 12, 173-200.

R93:    Hand D.J. (2001) Modelling consumer credit risk. IMA Journal of Management Mathematics, 12, 139-155.

R91:    Adams N.M., Hand D.J., and Till, R.J. (2001) Mining for classes and patterns in behavioural data. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 52, 1017-1024.

R90:    Hand D.J. and Yu K. (2001) Idiot’s Bayes - not so stupid after all? International Statistical Review, 69, 385-398.

R89:    Hand D.J. and Till R.J. (2001) A simple generalisation of the area under the ROC curve for multiple class classification problems. Machine Learning, 45, 171-186.

R88:    Hand D.J. (2001) Measuring diagnostic accuracy of statistical prediction rules. Statistica Neerlandica, 53, 3-16.

R87:    Hand D.J., Li H.G., and Adams N.M. (2001) Supervised classification with structured class definitions. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 36, 209-225.

I55:      Hand D.J. Neural networks. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. el-Shaarawi AH, Piegorsch WW, editors. Chichester: Wiley.

I54:      Hand D.J. Artificial intelligence. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. . el-Shaarawi AH, Piegorsch WW, editors. Chichester: Wiley.

I53:      Hand D.J. Data mining. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. el-Shaarawi AH, Piegorsch WW, editors. Chichester: Wiley.

I52:      Hand D.J. Modern data analysis: a clash of paradigms. Classification, Automation, and New Media. Springer, 75-85.

I51:      Hand D.J., Adams N.M. and Kelly M.G. (2001) Multiple classifier systems based on interpretable linear classifiers. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Multiple Classifier Systems, MCS 2001, Cambridge, July, 136-147.

I50:      Hand D.J. (2001) Education to equip people for change. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy V: Society, Science, and Education. ed. A.M.Herzberg and I. Krupka, Queen’s University, Canada, 197-201.

I49:      Hand D.J. (2001) Reject inference in credit operations. Handbook of Credit Scoring. Ed. Elizabeth Mays. Chicago: Glenlake Publishing. p225-240.

C36:    Bolton R.J.and Hand D.J. (2001) Significance tests for patterns in continuous data.  In Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, ed. N.Cercone, T.Y.Lin, and X.Wu. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, California. 67-74.

C35:    Yearling D. and Hand D.J. (2001) Investigating Temporal Patterns of Fault behaviour within large Telephony Networks. In Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis, ed F.Hoffmann, D.J. Hand, N.Adams, D.Fisher, and G.Guimaraes.  Cascais, Portugal. 340-349.

C34:    Cohen P., Adams N., and Hand D.J. (2001) The IDA’01 robot data challenge. In Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis, ed F.Hoffmann, D.J. Hand, N.Adams, D.Fisher, and G.Guimaraes.  Springer. 378-381.

C33:    Ferreira J.T.A.S., Denison D.G.T, and Hand D.J. (2001) Data mining with products of trees. In Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis, ed F.Hoffmann, D.J. Hand, N.Adams, D.Fisher, and G.Guimaraes.  Cascais, Portugal. 167-176

C32:    Norgate, S.H., Adams, N., Rose, S.P.R., Hand, D. (2001) A meta-analysis of behaviour genetic studies of I.Q.: evidence for 'g' factor?' Paper presented at the British Psychological Society joint Developmental Education Section Conference, University of Worcester, September 7th.

R86:    Mertens B.J.A. and Hand D.J. (2000) Adjusted estimation for the combination of classifiers. Intelligent Data Analysis, 4, 165-179.

R85:    Hand D.J. and Adams N.M. (2000) Defining attributes for scorecard construction. Journal of Applied Statistics, 27, 527-540.

R84:    Hand D.J.  (2001) New uses of statistics in retail banking.  American Journal of Mathematical and Management Sciences. 20.

R83:    Schiavo R. and Hand D.J. (2000) Ten More Years of Error Rate Research. International Statistical Review, 68, 295-310.

R82:    Hand D.J., Blunt G., Kelly M.G., and Adams N.M. (2000) Data mining for fun and profit. Statistical Science, 15, 111-131.

R81:    Adams N.M. and Hand D.J. (2000) An improved method for comparing diagnostic tests. Journal of Computing in Biology and Medicine, 30, 89-96.

R80:    Adams N.M. and Hand D.J. (2000) Improving the practice of classifier performance assessment. Neural Computation, 12, 305-311.

I48:      Hand D.J. and Blunt G. (2000) Prospecting for gems in credit card data. Proceedings of the Workshop on Statistical Modelling for Data Mining, University of Pavia, October 25th - 26th.

I47:      Hand D.J. (2000) Mining medical data. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 9, 1-3.

I46:      Hand D.J. (2000) Methodological issues in data mining. COMPSTAT 2000: Proceedings in Computational Statistics, ed. J.G.Bethlehem and P.G.M. van der Heijden. Physica-Verlag, 77-85.

C31:    Hand D.J. (2000) Synergy in drug combinations. In Data Analysis, ed. W.Gaul, O.Opitz, and M.Schader. Berlin, Springer, 471-5.

C30:    Denison, D.G.T, Adams, N.M., Holmes, C. and Hand, D.J. (2000). Bayesian Partition Modelling. Proceedings of NMDM2000, International Meeting on Nonlinear Methods and Data Mining, Rome, 25-26 September 2000.

L17:    Hand D.J. (2000) Contribution to the discussion of ‘The philosophy of statistics’ by Lindley, The Statistician, 49, 293-337.

R79:    Kelly M.G and Hand D.J. (1999) Credit scoring with uncertain class definitions. IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Business and Industry, 10, 331-345.

R78:    Taylor P.C. and Hand D.J. (1999) Finding superclassifications with acceptable misclassification rates.  Journal of Applied Statistics, 26, 579-590.

R77:    Adams N.M. and Hand D.J. (1999) Comparing classifiers when the misallocation costs are uncertain. Pattern Recognition, 32, 1139-1147.

R76:    Stanghellini E., McConway K.J., and Hand D.J. (1999)  A discrete variable chain graph for applicants for bank credit. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C, Applied Statistics, 48, 239-251.

I45:      Hand D.J. (1999) Measurement and the nature of science: the impact on the relationship between science and the public. In Statistics Science and Public Policy, III: Science and the Public Trust. ed. A.M.Herzberg and I.Krupka, Queen’s University, Canada, 103-108.

I43:      Hand D.J., (1999) Intelligent data analysis and deep understanding. In Causal Models and Intelligent Data Management, ed. A. Gammerman, Springer-Verlag. 67-80

I42:      Hand D.J. (1999) Statistics and data mining: intersecting disciplines. SIGKDD Explorations, 1, 16-19.

I41:      Hand D.J.(1999) Data mining: new challenges for statisticians. Proceedings of the ASC International Conference, 1999. ed. C.Christie and J.Francis et al., Association for Survey Computing, 21-29.  Also Social Science Computer Review, (2000) 18, 442-449.

I40:      Hand D.J. (1999) Why data mining is more than statistics writ large. Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute, 52nd Session, Vol. 1, 433-436.

C29:    Hand D.J. (1999) Introduction. In Intelligent Data Analysis, ed. M.Berthold and D.J.Hand, Springer, 1-14.

C28:    Mertens B.J.A. and Hand D.J. (1999) Adjusted estimation for the combination of classifiers. Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis, ed. D.J.Hand, J.N.Kok, and M.R.Berthold. Springer, Berlin. 317-330.

C27:    Kelly M.G., Hand D.J., and Adams N.M. (1999) Supervised classification problems: how to be both judge and jury.  Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis, ed. D.J.Hand, J.N.Kok, and M.R.Berthold. Springer, Berlin. 235-244.

C26:    Kelly M.G., Hand D.J., and Adams N.M. (1999) The impact of changing populations on classifier performance. Proceedings of the Fifth ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, ed. S.Chaudhuri and D.Madigan, Association for Computing Machinery, New York. 367-371.

L16:    Hand D.J. (1999) Contribution to the discussion of ‘Data mining reconsidered: encompassing and the general-to-specific approach to specification search’ by Hoover and Perez. Econometrics Journal, 2, 241-243.

L15:    Hand D.J. (1999) Contribution to the discussion of Research Methodology, ed. Adèr and Mellenbergh., Sage Publications, 333-335.

L14:    Hand D.J. (1999) Propose vote of thanks for ‘Statistical heresies’ by J.K.Lindsey, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series D, 48, 1-40.

R75:    Hand D.J. (1998) Data mining - reaching beyond statistics. Research in Official Statistics, 2, 5-17.

R74:    Hand D.J., (1998) Data mining: statistics and more? The American Statistician, 52, 112-118.

R73:    Hand D.J., Oliver J.J. and Lunn A.D. (1998) Discriminant analysis when the classes arise from a continuum. Pattern Recognition, 31, 641-650.

R72:    Hand D.J. (1998) Breaking misconceptions - statistics and its relationship to mathematics (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series D, 47, 245-250 and 284-286.

R71:    Hand D.J. (1998) Strategy, methods, and solving the right problem. Computational Statistics, 13, 5-14.

I39:      Hand D.J. (1998) Reject inference in credit operations. In Credit Risk Modelling: Design and Application, ed. By Elizabeth F. Mays, publ. Glenlake Publishing, 181-190.

I38:      Hand D.J. (1998) Scientific method and statistics. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics, Wiley.  3967-3971.

I37:      Hand D.J. (1998) Measurement scale. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics, Wiley. 2521-2524.

I36:      Hand D.J. (1998) Artificial intelligence. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics, Wiley. 193-196.

I35:      Hand D.J. (1998) Discriminant analysis, Linear. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics, Wiley. 1168-1179.

I34:      Hand D.J. (1998)   The importance of statistics in the gathering and analysis of data. In Statistics, Science, and Public Policy. Ed. A.M.Herzberg and I.Krupka. Kingston: Queen’s University. 103-105.

C25:    Hand D.J. (1998) Consumer credit and statistics. In Statistics in Finance, ed. D.J. Hand and S.D.Jacka, London, Arnold, 69-81.

C24:    Adams N.M., Hand D.J., and Li H.G. (1998) A simulation study of indirect prognostic classification.  In Proceedings in Computational Statistics, COMPSTAT-98, ed. R.Payne and P.Green, Heidelberg, Physica- Verlag, 149-154.

C23:    Kelly M.G., Hand D.J., and Adams N.M. (1998) Defining the goals to optimise data mining performance. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, ed. R.Agrawal, P.Stolorz, and G. Piatetsky-Shapiro. Menlo Park: AAAI Press. 234-238.

C22:    Hand D.J. Data mining - reaching beyond statistics. (1998) Proceedings of the KESDA98 conference, Luxembourg, April.

C21:    Schiavo R.A. and Hand D.J. (1998) Neural networks, PAC learning, and error rate estimation. XXXIX Riunione Scientifica della Societa’ Italiana di Statistica, Sorrento, April.

L13:    Fayers P.M., Groenvold M., and Hand D.J. and Bjordal K. (1998) Clinical impact versus factor analysis for quality of life questionnaire construction. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51, 285-286.

R70:    Fayers P.M. and Hand D.J. (1997) Generalising from phase III clinical trials: survival, quality of life, and health economics. The Lancet, 350, 1025-1027.

R69:    Fayers P.M., Hand D.J., Bjordal K., and Grønvold M. (1997) Causal indicators in quality of life research. Quality of Life Research, 6, 393-406.

R68:    Fayers P.M. and Hand D.J. (1997) Factor analysis, causal indicators, and quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 6, 139-150.

R67:    Hand D.J. and Henley W.E. (1997) Statistical classification methods in consumer credit scoring: a review.  Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 160, 523-541.

R66:    Krzanowski W.J. and Hand D.J. (1997) Assessing error rate estimators: the leave-one-out method reconsidered.  The Australian Journal of Statistics, 39, 35-46.

R65:    Henley W.E. and Hand D.J., (1997) Construction of a k-nearest neighbour credit scoring system.  IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Business and Industry, 8, 305-321.

R64:     Hand D.J., McConway K.J., and Stanghellini E. (1997) Graphical models of applicants for credit.  IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Business and Industry, 8, 143-155.

I33:      Hand D.J. (1997) Scientific and statistical hypotheses:  bridging the gap.  Understanding Social Research: perspectives on methodology and practice, ed G.McKenzie, J.Powell, and R.Usher, Falmer Press, 124-136.

I32:      Hand D.J. (1997) Intelligent data analysis: issues and opportunities. In Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis: Reasoning about Data. ed. Xiaohui Liu, Paul Cohen, and Michael Berthold.. Berlin: Springer. 1-14.  Reprinted in Intelligent Data Analysis, 2, 67-79, 1998.

I31:      Hand D.J. and Henley W.E. (1997) Some developments in statistical credit scoring, in Machine learning and statistics: the interface. ed. G.Nakhaeizadeh and C.Taylor. Wiley. 221-237.

C20:    Mertens B.J.A. and Hand D.J. (1997) Biased methods of classification in high dimensions: a comparative assessment. In Classification and Knowledge Organization, ed. R.Klar and O.Opitz, Berlin: Springer. Pp 162-170.

C19:    Gower J.C., Hand D.J. and Ngouenet R.F. (1997) The development of interactive graphical software for a unified biplot methodology. In Computing Science and Statistics, 29, eds: EJ Wegman and SP Azen, International Association for Statistical Computing, Pasadena, California, pp 22-27.

C18:    Hand D.J., Yu K., and Adams N. (1997) Assessing and improving classification rules.  Preliminary Papers of the Sixth International Workshop on AI and Statistics, Florida, January.  Ed. D.Madigan and P.Smyth. Society for AI and Statistics. 243-253.

L12:    Hand D.J. (1997) Contribution to discussion of Copas and Li, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 59, 80.

L11:    Hand D.J. (1997) Contribution to discussion of Breiman and Friedman, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 59, 40.

R63:    Oliver J.J. and Hand D.J. (1996) Averaging over decision trees. Journal of Classification, 13, 281-297.

R62:     Hand D.J. (1996) Statistics and the theory of measurement (with discussion).  Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 159, 445-492.

R61:     Channon S. and Hand D.J. (1996) Verbal memory following temporal lobectomy. Data and Statistics, 1, 215-219.

R60:    Henley W.E. and Hand D.J. (1996) A k-NN classifier for assessing consumer credit risk. The Statistician, 45, 77-95.

I30:      Hand D.J., (1996) Classification and computers: shifting the focus. In COMPSTAT - Proceedings in Computational Statistics, 1996. ed. A.Prat. Physica-Verlag. p77-88.

I29:      Hand D.J. (1996) Further statistical methods. Research Methods, ed. A. Greenfield, Edward Arnold. 189-194.

I28:      Lunneborg C.E. and Hand D.J.  (1996) Data analysis by computer. Research Methods, ed. A. Greenfield, Edward Arnold. 195-203.

I27:      Hand D.J. (1996) Elementary statistics.  Research Methods, ed. A. Greenfield, Edward Arnold. 181-188.

R59:    Hand D.J. (1995) Comparing allocation rules. Statistics in Transition, 2 137–150.

R58:    Hand D.J. (1995) An episode in the history of measurement and statistics.  Teaching Statistics, 17, 54–56.

C17:    Oliver J.J. and Hand D.J. (1995) On pruning and averaging decision trees. In Machine Learning: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Machine Learning. Ed. A.Prieditis and S.Russell, Tahoe City, California, Morgan Kauffman.

L10:    Hand D.J. (1995) Invited commentary on ‘The use of statistics in the British Journal of Psychiatry’ by S.M. McGuigan.  British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 689.

L9:      Hand D.J. (1995) Screening for stratification in two-phase (‘two-stage’) epidemiological surveys.  Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 4, 263.

L8:      Hand D.J. (1995) Contribution to discussion of Chatfield, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 158, 448.

R57:    Hand D.J. (1994) Statistical expert systems. Chance, 17, No.1, 28–31 and 34.

R56:    Hand D.J. (1994) Assessing classification rules. The Journal of Applied Statistics, 21, 3–16.

R55:    Hand D.J. and Henley W.E. (1993/4) Can reject inference ever work? IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Business and Industry, 5, 45–55.

R54:    Hand D.J. (1994) Deconstructing statistical questions (with discussion), Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 157, 317–356.

I26:      Hand D.J. (1994) Recent results in pattern recognition theory and applications.  In Current topics in pattern recognition research, 1, 113–123.

I25:      Hand D.J. (1994) The impact of artificial intelligence on statistical data analysis. Softstat–93:  Advances in statistical software 4, ed. F. Faulbaum.  Fischer-Verlag. 3–10.

I24:      Hand D.J. (1994) Artificial intelligence and statistics: synergy in action, in  Artificial Intelligence in Mathematics, ed. J. Johnson, S. McKee and A. Vella.  The Clarendon Press, 265-278.

I23:      Hand D.J. and W.E. Henley (1994) Inference about rejected cases in discriminant analysis. In New approaches in classification and data analysis.  ed. E. Diday et al.  Springer-Verlag. 292-299.

I22:      Hand D.J. (1994) Statistics and computing: the promise and the risk.  In AI and Computer Power:  the Impact on Statistics.  ed. Hand D.J. Chapman & Hall, 1-8.

I21:      Hand D.J. Information technology and statistics, in International Encyclopaedia of Information Technology, ed. P. Hills, publ. Croom Helm. 

C16:    Hand D.J. (1994) Statistical strategy: step 1.  Selecting Models from Data : Artificial Intelligence and Statistics IV, eds. P. Cheeseman and R.W. Oldford.  Springer-Verlag, p3-9.

C15:    Oliver J.J. and Hand D.J. (1994) Averaging over decision stumps. Machine Learning: ECML–94 Proceedings of the European Conference on Machine Learning, eds. F. Bergadano and L. de Raedt, Catania, Italy, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p231–241.

L7:      Hand D.J. (1994) Contribution to discussion of Ripley, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 56, 439-440.

R53:    Hand D.J. (1993) What is synergy? revisited.  Journal of Pharmaceutical Medicine, 3, 97–100.

R52:    Hand D.J. (1993) Data, metadata, and information. Statistical Journal of the United Nations, 10, 143–151.

R51:    Dunn G., Sham P.C., and Hand D.J. (1993) Statistics and the nature of depression, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 156, 63–87.  (Reprinted in Psychological Medicine, 23, 871–889)

I20:      Gale W.A., Hand D.J., and Kelly A.E. (1993) Statistical applications of artificial intelligence, in Handbook of Statistics, Vol 9, ed. C.R. Rao.  Elsevier, 535–576.

I19:      Hand D.J. (1993) AI in statistics, New Techniques and Technologies in Statistics, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 133–140.

C14:    Hand D.J. (1993) Perspectives in classification and the future of the IFCS. IFCS Newsletter, 7, p4–6, October.

C13:    Hand D.J. (1993) The first step in statistical consultancy, Proceedings of 1992 International Biometric Conference, Hamilton, New Zealand, p221–228.

C12:    Hand D.J. (1993) Measurement scales as metadata, in Artificial intelligence Frontiers in Statistics, ed Hand D.J..  Chapman & Hall, p54–64.

L6:      Hand D.J. (1993) Comment on “Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio typologies are misleading”. The American Statistician, 47, p314–315.

L5:      Hand D.J. (1993) Reply to Nemenyi. The American Statistician, 47, p159.

R50:    Hand D.J. (1992) On comparing two treatments, The American Statistician, 46, 190–192.

R49:    Almustafa M., Doyle F.H., Gutteridge D.H., Hand D.J., Davis T.M.E., Spinks T.J., Freemantle C., and Joplin G.F. (1992) Effects of treatments by calcium and sex hormones on vertebral fracturing in osteoporosis, Quarterly Journal of Medicine, New Series 83, No. 300, 283–294.

R48:    Hand D.J. (1992) Statistical methods in diagnosis, Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 1, 49–67.

I18:      Hand D.J. (1992) Microdata, macrodata, and metadata, in Computational Statistics, Vol. 2, ed. Y. Dodge and J. Whittaker.  Heidelberg; Physica-Verlag, 325–340.

C11:    Hand D.J. (1992) On editing journals, News and Notes of the Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 18, No. 6.  And reprinted in As the publisher and the editor said to the author, 2nd ed., Bradford: MCB University Press, p15–16, (1993).

P7:       BBC radio programme on Election Polls, broadcast March 1992.

R47:    Cooper C., Shah S., Hand D.J., Compston J., Davie M., and Woolf A. (1991) Screening for vertebral osteoporosis using individual risk factors, Osteoporosis International, 2, 48–53.

R46:    Fitzmaurice G.M., Krzanowski W.J., and Hand D.J. (1991) A Monte Carlo study of the 632 bootstrap estimator of error rate, Journal of Classification, 8, 239–250.

R45:    Dodge Y. and Hand D.J. (1991) What should future statistical software look like?, Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 12, 369–72.

R44:    Thompson M.J., Hand D.J., and Everitt B.S. (1991) Contradictory correlations between derived scales, Statistics in Medicine, 10, 1315–1319.

R43:    Hand D.J. (1991) Expert systems and statistics, The Journal of Applied Statistics, 18, 1–2.

I17:      Hand D.J. (1991) How to analyse your repeated measures data, in Proceedings of the Workshop on design of longitudinal studies and analysis of repeated measures data.  ed. S.R. Wilson.  Centre for Mathematics and Its Applications. 3-16.

I16:      Hand D.J. (1991) Statistics, in Software Engineer’s Reference Book, ed. J.A. McDermid, Publ. Butterworth, 6/3–6/11.

I15:      Hand D.J.  and Cubitt R. (1991) Statistical expert systems, in Statistical and scientific databases, ed. Z. Michalewicz. Publ. Ellis-Horwood, 421–429.

I14:      Hand D.J. (1991) Classification trees, in New Developments in Statistics for Psychology and the Social Sciences, Vol. 2, ed. A. and S. Lovie, London: Routledge, 81–94.

R42:    Myles J.P. and Hand D.J. (1990) The multi-class metric problem in nearest neighbour discrimination rules, Pattern Recognition, 23, 1291–7.

R41:    Hand D.J. (1990) Introduction to AI and Statistics II, Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 2, 1–4.

R40:    Hand D.J. (1990) Practical experience in developing statistical knowledge enhancement systems, Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 2, 197–208.

I13:      Hand D.J. (1990) Emergent themes in statistical expert systems, in Knowledge, Data, and Computer-Assisted Decisions, ed. M. Schader and W. Gaul, Springer-Verlag, 279–288.

L4:      Hand D.J. (1990)  Propose vote of thanks to papers by Edwards and by Lauritzen and Wermuth, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 52, p51–52.

R39:    Multiple authors (1989) Relative efficacy of intravenous methylprednisolone and ACTH in the treatment of acute relapse in MS, Neurology, 39, 969–971.

I12:      Hand D.J. (1989) The applications of artificial intelligence in statistics, in Development of Statistical Expert Systems, Eurostat News Special Edition, EEC, Luxembourg, 35–48, .

I11:      Hand D.J. (1989) Artificial intelligence in psychiatric research, in Microcomputers, Psychology, and Medicine, ed. R. West, M. Christie, and J. Weinman, J. Wiley and Sons. 45-55.

I10:      Hand D.J. (1989) Discriminant analysis for psychiatric screening, in Assignments in Applied Statistics, ed. S. Conrad, Wiley, 137–46.

I9:        Hand D.J. and Glover E.J. (1989) The impact of information technology, in The Scope of Epidemiological Psychiatry, ed. P. Williams, G. Wilkinson, and K. Rawnsley, publ. Routledge, 128–36.

L3:      Hand D.J. (1988) Second vote of thanks to Spiegelhalter and Lauritzen, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 50, p195–6.

R38:    Hand D.J. (1987) A statistical knowledge enhancement system, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 150, 335–45.

R37:    Hand D.J. and Fitzmaurice G.M. (1987) Error rate estimation by mixture decomposition, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 14, 573–578.

R36:    Fitzmaurice G.M. and Hand D.J. (1987) A comparison of two average conditional error rate estimators, Pattern Recognition Letters, 6, p221–4.

R35:    Hand D.J. (1987) Artificial intelligence and medicine, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 80, 653–65.

R34:    Hand D.J. (1987) A shrunken leaving-one-out estimator of error rate, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 14, 161–7.

R33:    Hand D.J. (1987) Screening versus prevalence estimation, Applied Statistics, 36, 1–7.

I8:        Hand D.J. (1987) Statistical expert systems research, The Professional Statistician, 6, No. 10, December, 10–12.

C10:    Hand D.J. (1987) Bibliography on statistical consulting, in The Statistical Consultant in Action, ed. Hand D.J. and B.S. Everitt, Cambridge University Press, p180–2.

C9:      Hand D.J. and Everitt B.S. (1987) Statistical consultancy, in The Statistical Consultant in Action, ed. Hand D.J. and B.S. Everitt, Cambridge University Press, p1–10.

I7:        Hand D.J. (1987) The application of expert systems in statistics, in Interactions in Artificial Intelligence and Statistical Methods, ed. Bob Phelps, Aldershot: Gower Technical Press.

L2:      Hand D.J. (1987) Contribution to discussion of Cleveland and McGill, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 150, 213.

R32:    Williams P., Tarnopolsky A., Hand D.J., and Shepherd M. (1986) Minor psychiatric morbidity and general practice consultation: the West London Study, Psychological Medicine Monograph Supplement, 9.

R31:    Hand D.J. (1986) An optimal error rate estimator based on average conditional error rate: asymptotic results, Pattern Recognition Letters, 4, 347–50.

R30:    Hand D.J. (1986) Recent advances in error rate estimation, Pattern Recognition Letters, 4, 335–46.

R29:    Hand D.J. and Reading A.E. (1986) Discriminant analysis of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Psychological Reports, 59, 763–70.

R28:    Hand D.J. (1986) Expert systems in statistics, Knowledge Engineering Review, 1, No. 3, 2–10.

R27:    Hand D.J. (1986) Estimating class sizes by adjusting fallible classifier results, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 12a, No. 2, 289–99.

I6:        Hand D.J. (1986) Cross-validation in error rate estimation, Proceedings of the 13th Biometric Conference, Seattle.

I5:        Hand D.J. (1986) Pattern recognition — or how to tell it’s one of those, in The Fascination of Statistics, ed. T.H. Hassard et al, Marcel-Dekker. 65-72.

C8:      Hand D.J. (1986) Patterns in statistical strategy, in Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, ed. W. Gale, publ. Addison Wesley.

P6:       Hand D.J., C. Andrew, and S. Subotsky, ‘Publications at the Institute of Psychiatry’, Bethlem and Maudsley Gazette, 33, p41–43, 1986.6.

R26:    Clements J.C. and Hand D.J. (1985) Permutation statistics in single case designs’, Behavioural Psychotherapy, 13, 288–99.

R25:    Hand D.J. (1985) The role of statistics in psychiatry, Psychological Medicine, 15, 471–6.

R24:    Little A., Levy R., Chuaqui P., and Hand D.J. (1985) A double-blind, placebo controlled trial of high-dose lecithin in Alzheimer’s disease’, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 48, 736–42.

R23:    Hand D.J. (1985) Statistical expert systems: necessary attributes, The Journal of Applied Statistics, 12, 19–27.

R22:    Cundy T., Hand D.J., Oliver D.O., Woods C.G., Wright F.W., and Kanis J.A. (1985) Who gets renal bone disease before beginning dialysis?, British Medical Journal, 290, 271–5.

I4:        Hand D.J. (1985) Choice of statistical technique, ISI Bulletin, Proceedings of the 45th (Centennial) Session, Amsterdam, August, 1985, Vol. 3, 21.1–1 to 21.1–16.

R21:    Hand D.J. (1984) Statistical expert systems: design, The Statistician, 33, 351–69.

I3:        Hand D.J. (1984) Experimental design and sample selection, in The Scientific Basis of Psychopathology, ed. P. McGuffin, M.F. Shanks, and R.J. Hodgson, Academic Press, 701–13.

I2:        Hand D.J. (1984) Statistics, in The Scientific Basis of Psychopathology, ed. P. McGuffin, M.F. Shanks, and R.J. Hodgson, Academic Press, 679–99.

R20:    Bass C., Wade C., Hand D.J., and Jackson G. (1983) Patients with angina with normal and near normal coronary arteries: clinical and psychosocial state 12 months after angiography, British Medical Journal, 287, 1505–8.

R19:    Hand D.J. (1983) A comparison of two methods of discriminant analysis applied to binary data, Biometrics, 39, 683–94.

R18:    Smith A.M.R., Lee L.S., and Hand D.J. (1983) Interactive user-friendly interfaces to statistical packages’, The Computer Journal, 26, 199–204.

R17:    Reading A.E., Hand D.J., and Sledmere C.M. (1983) A comparison of response profiles obtained on the McGill Pain Questionnaire and an adjective checklist’, Pain, 16, 375–83.

R16:    Hand D.J. (1983) Common errors in data analysis I: apparent error rate of classification rules, Psychological Medicine, 13, 201–3.

R15:    Dische S., Yule W., Corbett J., and Hand D.J. (1983) Childhood nocturnal enuresis: factors associated with outcome of treatment with an alarm’, Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 25, 67–80.

R14:    Hand D.J. (1983) An applicable theorem in matrix algebra’, The Mathematical Gazette, 67, No. 439, 58–9.

P5:       Hand D.J., ‘Research and teaching — one statistician’s view’, Bethlem and Maudsley Gazette, Winter, 1983, p20–22.

R13:    Williams P., Hand D.J., and Tarnopolsky A. (1982) The problem of screening for uncommon disorders — a comment on the Eating Attitudes Test, Psychological Medicine, 12, 431–4.

R12:    Hand D.J. (1982) Statistical tests in experimental psychiatric research, Psychological Medicine, 12, 415–21.

C7:      Hand D.J. (1982) Statistical pattern recognition on binary variables, in Pattern Recognition Theory and Applications, ed. J. Kittler, K.S. Fu, and L.F. Pau, publ. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Boston, p19–33.

R11:    Thompson C. and Hand D.J. (1981) Identification of disease entities, British Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 256–257.

R10:    Jenkins L.M., Tarnopolsky A., and Hand D.J. (1981) Psychological admissions and aircraft noise from London Airport four year three hospital study, Psychological Medicine, 11, 765–782.

R9:      Hand D.J. (1981) Artificial intelligence, Psychological Medicine, 11, 449–53.  (Reprinted in The Spectrum of Psychological Research, ed. M. Shepherd, Cambridge University Press, 1984)

R8:      Hand D.J. (1981) Branch and bound in statistical data analysis, The Statistician, 30, 1–13.

R7:      Tarnopolsky A., Watkins G., and Hand D.J. (1980) Aircraft noise and mental health I: prevalence of individual symptoms, Psychological Medicine, 10, 683–98.

R6:      Williams P., Tarnopolsky A., and Hand D.J. (1980) Case definition and case identification in psychiatric epidemiology: review and assessment, Psychological Medicine, 10, 101–14.

C6:      Tarnopolsky A., Hand D.J., Barker S.M., and Jenkins L.M. (1980) Aircraft noise annoyance and mental health: a psychiatric viewpoint, Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, Freiburg, September, 1978, American-Speech-Language Association Report No. 10, p588–93.

C5:      Hand D.J., Tarnopolsky A. , Barker S.M., and Jenkins L.M. (1980) Relationships between psychiatric hospital admissions and aircraft noise: a new study, Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, Freiburg, September, 1978, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Report No. 10, p277–82.

P4:       Hand D.J., ‘Artificial intelligence’, Bethlem and Maudsley Gazette, Summer, 1980, p20–2.

L1:      Hand D.J. (1979) ‘Psychiatric examples of Simpson’s paradox’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 135, p90–1.

R5:      Jenkins L.M., Tarnopolsky A., Hand D.J., and Barker S.M. (1979) Comparisons of three studies of aircraft noise and psychiatric hospital admissions conducted in the same area, Psychological Medicine, 9, 681–93.

R4:      Tarnopolsky A., Hand D.J., McLean E.K., Roberts H., and Wiggins R.D. (1979) Validity and uses of a screening questionnaire (GHQ) in the community, British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 508–15.

P3:       Hand D.J., ‘Evolutionary programming — an intelligent answer?’ Personal Computer World, 1, No. 12, p45–7, 1979.

R3:      Hand D.J. and Batchelor B.G. (1978) Experiments on the edited condensed nearest neighbour rule, Information Sciences, 14, 171–80.

I1:        Hand D.J. (1978) A survey of techniques for classifying incomplete vectors, in Data structure analysis and its applications; ENST-C-78002, ed. J. Kittler, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, Paris.

P2:       Hand D.J., ‘Catastrophe theory’, Bethlem and Maudsley Gazette, Winter,  1978, p6–9.

P1:       Hand D.J., ‘Pattern recognition — the ultimate interface’, Personal Computer World, 1, No. 3, p62–5, 1978.

C4       Batchelor B.G., and Hand D.J. (1976) A pattern recognition competition, Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Pattern Recognition, San Diego.

C3:      Hand D.J. and Batchelor B.G. (1976) The classification of incomplete vectors, Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Pattern Recognition, San Diego.

R2:      Batchelor B.G. and Hand D.J. (1975) On the graphical analysis of pdf estimators for pattern recognition, Kybernetes, 4, 239–46.

R1:      Batchelor B.G. and Hand D.J. (1975) Preliminary note on the classification of vectors with some unknown descriptors, Kybernetes, 4, 105–9.

C2:      Hand D.J. and Batchelor B.G. (1975) Classification of incomplete vectors using orthogonal function methods, Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Cybernetics and Systems, Bucharest

C1:      Hand D.J. and Batchelor B.G. (1974) A preliminary note on pattern classification using incomplete vectors, Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Pattern Recognition, Copenhagen.